ProbabilityProbability or Chance
Probability Aptitude Maths PDF Study Materials
Probability or Chance:
 Probability or chance is a common term used in daytoday life. For example, we generally say, ‘it may rain today’. This statement has a certain uncertainty.Probability is quantitative measure of the chance of occurrence of a particular event.
Experiment
 An experiment is an operation which can produce welldefined outcomes.
Random Experiment:
If all the possible outcomes of an experiment are known but the exact output cannot be predicted in advance, that experiment is called a random experiment.
Examples:

Tossing of a fair coin
When we toss a coin, the outcome will be either Head (H) or Tail (T)

Throwing an unbiased die
Die is a small cube used in games. It has six faces and each of the six faces shows a different number of dots from 1 to 6. Plural of die is dice.
When a die is thrown or rolled, the outcome is the number that appears on its upper face and it is a random integer from one to six, each value being equally likely.

Drawing a card from a pack of shuffled cards
A pack or deck of playing cards has 52 cards which are divided into four categories as given below
 Spades (♠)
 Clubs (♣)
 Hearts (♥)
 Diamonds (♦)
Each of the above mentioned categories has 13 cards, 9 cards numbered from 2 to 10, an Ace, a King, a Queen and a jack
Hearts and Diamonds are red faced cards whereas Spades and Clubs are black faced cards.
Kings, Queens and Jacks are called face cards

Taking a ball randomly from a bag containing balls of different colours
 When a coin is tossed, outcome of getting head or tail is an event
 When a die is rolled, outcome of getting 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 is an event
Simple Events:
 Probability of getting a Head (H) when a coin is tossed
 Probability of getting 1 when a die is throw